Inmunopotenciadores para la acuicultura

Rocmira Pérez, Belkis Romeu, Miriam Lastre, Yeny Morales, Osmir Cabrera-Blanco, Laura Reyes, Sergio Sifontes, Oliver Pérez-Martín, Elizabeth González-Aznar

Resumen


La acuicultura es una de las actividades económicas de mayor crecimiento para la producción de alimentos. Uno de sus principales retos es la obtención de grandes volúmenes de producción con la mayor calidad posible. Esto conlleva a una reducción de la aplicación de antibióticos y productos quimioterapéuticos. Una de las estrategias más prometedoras es la aplicación de inmunopotenciadores, principalmente en los cultivos intensivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los principales inmunopotenciadores, así como las tendencias y retos de su uso mundial. Se resumen las particularidades moleculares y funcionales de los mismos y se hace énfasis en los más estudiados: levamisol, ß-glucanos, lipopolisacárido, vitamina C, extractos de plantas y hormonas. Todos estos compuestos de naturaleza heterogénea inciden mayoritariamente en los componentes de la inmunidad innata de los peces, fortaleciendo y potenciando la resistencia a enfermedades; adicionalmente algunos de ellos tienen funciones antiestrés y favorecen su crecimiento. Se concluye que los inmunopotenciadores constituyen una estrategia viable para reducir las pérdidas por problemas sanitarios en el sector de la acuicultura; pero aún quedan por solucionar aspectos como la vía de administración y la etapa de inmunización adecuada para cada especie y tipo de cultivo.

Palabras clave


acuicultura; inmunopotenciadores; estrés; enfermedades de peces

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Referencias


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Copyright (c) 2015 Rocmira Pérez, Belkis Romeu, Miriam Lastre, Yeny Morales, Osmir Cabrera, Laura Reyes, Elizabeth González-Aznar, Sergio Sifontes, Oliver Pérez-Martín

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